July 14, 2014

Horn types

AC and DC: Most mopeds do not have a battery, so the electricity is all AC alternating current from the generator (magneto). Motorcycles and some mopeds do have a battery. Their electricity is DC direct current. Horns are made for either AC or DC. DC horns sound like a beeeeeeeep. The pitch is steady because the battery voltage is steady. AC horns sound like a wrong answer buzzer. The pitch goes up and down with the rpm of the engine. AC and DC horns look similar, but do not interchange. All modern scooters and motorcycles have 12 volt DC horns. They are common. Some older Taiwanese mopeds have 6 volt DC horns. AC buzzers are “old school” and are not on anything modern.

Factors that affect AC horn loudness

Internal corrosion: Used moped horns that are on bikes loose loudness after many years. That is from corrosion on the aluminum sound plate and the zinc-plated steel surface it buzzes against. Horns that have been kept in a sealed wrapper do not loose loudness.  

Headlight on or off: AC moped horns are loud with the headlight off, but quiet with the headlight on. That is because the horn and headlight share the same generator power, which is not well regulated, and limited in wattage. When the headlight is off the horn gets 10-15 volts, and when the light is on it gets 5-8 volts. The effect gets worse the more watts the headlight uses. 

Generator power: AC horn loudness depends on the generator power. You never know if a horn that works on a Peugeot for example, would work on a Puch, until you try it. Or it might work good on Puch at low rpm, but not high. Maybe visa versa on Garelli. 

Voltage regulation: Before the mid-1980’s there was a lot less generator power, typically 6 volt 25 watts. With the advent of solid-state AC voltage regulators, generator power was increased, typically 12 volt 50 watts. The regulated AC voltage eliminated the problem of the horn getting loosing loudness when the headlight was turned on.

Factors that affect DC horn loudness

Internal corrosion: Used moped horns that are on bikes loose loudness after many years. That is from corrosion on the aluminum sound plate and the zinc-plated steel surface it buzzes against. Horns that have been kept in a sealed wrapper do not loose loudness.  

Battery power: Motorcycles that have electric start have large batteries with plenty of power available for the horn. But pedal or kick start mopeds with small batteries can have a weak horn caused by a weak battery.

Horn testing

You cannot easily tell whether a horn is good or bad. You cannot easily look inside because it is riveted together. You cannot perform a valid test of it unless you have the moped it is intended to go on, running, with working horn wires and button.


Horns for Sale

6 volt AC horn, 18 watt $28  freshly-made in Italy





Electrical Componentry

July 14, 2014


Fratelli Pagani (CEV) 1930 catalog page of pocket flashlights

Fratelli Pagani (CEV) 1930 catalog page of pocket flashlights

WelcoCEVme.  Most European-made mopeds have high quality C.E.V. electrical components, made in Italy since the 1920’s by Fratelli Pagani (Pagani Brothers). C.E.V. is a trade mark that stands for Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche Venegonesi. English translation: Constructions Electromechanical of the Venegonese people (from Venegono, Province of Varese, Northern Italy). CEV is now part of ZADI.


ZadiZADI was founded in 1962 by Antonio Zavatti and Enrico Diacci, two former employees of Magneti Marelli. ZADI made all of Piaggio’s locks, and most 1960’s and later Italian motorcycle locks. In the 1997 ZADI purchased GKS (formerly Neiman, maker of fork locks) and other companies, forming ZADIGROUP. In 2001, ZADI purchased the electrical giant CEV, and has since become a world leader in manufacturing motorcycle and vehicle lock sets, lights, instruments, odometers, switches and electronic solutions, such as automatic parking systems. 


Aprilia logoAprilia (Italy) made lights and switches for many 1960’s – 70’s Italian, and some non-Italian, motorcycles and mopeds. This greyhound logo appeared on a 1972 Ducati 750GT head light. This Aprilia, an electrical equipment maker, is possibly from the industrial town of Aprilia, near Rome. The famous Aprilia motorcycle make is completely different.



Merit WMeriterke (Germany) made switches for German mopeds, and for Puch, Peugeot, and others. Merit Werke Gmbh began in 1966, in Germany then later moved to Malta, in the Mediterranean. They still make automotive switches and components, with the same MW logo, but with the name Merit Malta.


ULO ULO(Germany) made tail lights, reflectors, and turn signals for German mopeds, Hercules (Sachs), Kreidler, Solo, Kynast, and tail lights for many non-German mopeds, Batavus, Sparta, Puch,  Peugeot, Motobecane and Honda PA50. ULO was founded by Moritz Ullman in 1947 in Geislingen Germany. Ullman knew how to make molded glass products, like bicycle reflectors.


  Luxor brassLuxor (France) made head lights for French mopeds, Peugeot and Motobecane. Luxor has been making quality bicycle lights for about a century. Before electric lamps were “invented” in the 1910’s, Luxor made carbide lamps. In Europe the Luxor Motobecane head light is square. USA-model Motobecanes have a 4.5″ round sealed beam housed in a Luxor ring and bucket.



HRHR (Slovenia) stands for Hidria Rotomatika, a division of Hidria. Tomos (mopeds), Iskra (moped magnetos), and AET (moped electronics) are also divisions of Hidria. Along with many automotive and industrial products, Hidria Rotomatika made high quality controls and switches for Volocci (electric) and Tomos mopeds, 1992 to 2007. The HR switches are nicknamed “blue button” in the Myrons Wiring Diagrams, because they are part of a sequence useful for identification: TOMOS SWITCHES: 1986-91 had only “black button” CEV, 1992-07 had mostly “blue button” HR,  2002-07 also had “yellow button” Domino, and 2008-13 had only “red button” TBS.


Tomos Logo The Hidria Rotomatika controls are referred to here as “1992-2007 Tomos” controls. The only HR logo is on the right switch, barely visible. The “1992-07 Tomos” controls say “TOMOS” on each black plastic lever blade, but say nothing else.


Domino invertedDomino (Italy) is well known for making controls. Since the 1970’s in the US, and before that in Europe, Domino made controls for about 90% of all Italian mopeds, and for about 30% of all European mopeds. They are still going. In the 2000’s Domino also made switches, used on 2002-07 Tomos Revival, Arrow, Arrow-R and Streetmate.   


TBS logoTBS (India?) makes modern motorcycle and scooter controls. Their control levers, throttle, and both switch assemblies all have awesome quality and function and resist breaking. The TBS switches are nicknamed “red horn button” in the Myrons Wiring Diagrams. TBS controls (Domino compatible) are on 2008-13 Tomos mopeds, all models. 


PetersonPeterson (USA) made tail lights, and head lights for 1970’s American-made mopeds, like AMF and Murray. Peterson began in 1945 making automotive tail lights. They still produce head lights, tail lights, and other automotive items in their huge Grandview, Missouri plant.  


NioxNiox (Germany) made head lights for many 1960’s German cars, such as Mercedes Benz, and motorcycles such as Zundapp and Hercules. On 1970’s US mopeds, a NIOX 4.5″ round head light in a ULO housing was original on 1978-81 Puch Magnum. NIOX square headlights were on 1984-86 Puch Maxi Sport LS, Maxi Sport LS II, Cobra, Cobra II, and Austro Daimler. ULO-housed NIOX round headlights were also on some German moped makes like Solo (Odyssey in US). Every other German, Austrian, or Dutch moped had a CEV headlight.


Hella SaturnusSaturnus oldSaturnus (Slovenia) made lamps and reflectors for European cars from the 1950’s on. They began in 1921 making tin cans. Saturnus made lights for Tomos mopeds from 1988 to 2012. Their rectangular head light and rectangular signal light assemblies are similar to and interchangeble with CEV lights, but the individual parts are not. Unlike CEV, Saturnus lights lack the US DOT certification. So most USA version Tomos mopeds have CEV lights. Saturnus  is now part of Hella (Slovenia).


Rinder head light

Rinder head light

Derbi Laguna

CEV head light

RinderRinder (Spain) made head lights for Derbi mopeds and motorcycles. Spain had high import taxes to encourage the use of domestic components. That’s why some Derbi parts are Spanish-made-under-license, like the Walker (VDO) speedometer and the Arbeo (Dellorto) carburetor. The Rinder square-hexagon moped head light would have been on the US models, but it did not have DOT approval. That’s why the Derbi Laguna fairing has the “incorrect” shaped CEV round head light. In Europe, the Sport Coppa motorcycle and the 1970’s -early 80’s Derbi Variant mopeds, all had the “correct” square-hexagon Rinder head lights. By the late 1980’s Rinder had a rounded rectangular headlight approved by US DOT, used on the Derbi Variant Sport and DS50.


StanleyStanley (Japan) made head, tail, and turn lights for vintage Hondas. Koito (Japan) made headlights. Denso (Japan) made some Honda electrics. Kokusan (Japan) made electrics. Tatung made Taiwan moped speedometers.

The Czech moped, Jawa, has it’s own components.  


Wirings and Other Electrical

September 13, 2012

Generic Wiring Harness


This is a main wiring harness for 3-or-more-coil moped magnetos (ignition, lights, brake light). It can be configured for 2-coil magnetos (ignition/brake light, lights). See below for possible configurations. It is shown as a photo and a schematic. It comes with the round chrome switches, right for engine stop, left for headlight and horn. Price $95

This is only the front main harness. A rear harness, engine to tail light, and connector block are needed to make a complete harness, but they’re not included.

Here is that generic wiring harness adapeted to fit a Garelli (US model), with an external ignition ground on the blue magneto wire.




Peugeot 103 Wiring Harness

Peugeot 103 (US) 1976-79 wiring harness new $185 with CEV switches


Peugeot 103 (US) 1976-79 wiring harness used  none


Peugeot 103 (US) 1980-83 wiring harness used  $45 with switches






Voltage Regulators

1. 123092 voltage regulator 12VAC  $25.0 40w aftermarket
2. 221582 voltage regulator 12VAC  $45.0 80w Tomos A35 no battery ’92-06
3. 236733 voltage regulator 12VAC  $45.0 80w Tomos A55 no battery ’02-17
4. 230844 regulator-rectifier 12VDC $45.0 80w Tomos battery models ’02-13
5. 054704 voltage regulator    6VAC $25.0 40w used MB with heat sink

Regulators 1, 2 and 3 can interchange. They all regulate the voltage on the yellow wire, by dumping any excess voltage into the brown wire, that goes to the frame. They keep the AC voltage below about 13 volts. This allows the use of a stronger generator, for brighter lights when stopped and the engine is idling. The stronger generator would otherwise be too strong when the engine was running fast, and would make a voltage over 13 volts, maybe 14 or 16. That would make the lights super bright, but they would soon burn out. The regulator prevents bulb burnout from too much voltage. The bulbs can also burn out from too much vibration. The regulator would not help that.

Regulators 2 and 3 have blade connectors that are duplicates (connected together inside) or unused (not connected inside).



Turn Signal Flashers

These are listed in turn signals.



201204 blade fuse,  10 amp, 5-pack  $5